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Surfactant Chaperones
Maskarinec, Stacey A., Jürgen Hannig, Raphael C. Lee, and Ka Yee C. Lee. "Direct Observation of Poloxamer 188 Insertion into Lipid Monolayers." Biophysical Journal 82 (March 2002): 1453-1459.

Wu, Guohui, Jarsolaw Majewski, Canay Ege, Kristian Kjaer, Markus Jan Weygand, and Ka Yee C. Lee. "Small-Angle X-ray Scattering Study of the Interaction of Poly(ethylene oxide)-b-Poly(propylene oxide)-b-Poly(ethylene oxide) Triblock Copolymers with Lipid Bilayers." Biomacromolecules 4, no. 6 (October 2003): 1539-1549.

Moghimi, S. Moein and A. Christy Hunter. "Poloxamers and poloxamines in nanoparticle engineering and experimental medicine." TibTech 18 (October 2000): 412-420.
Cell Membrane Repair
Lee, Raphael C. "Cytroprotection by Stabilization of Cell Membranes." Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences 961 (2002):271-275.

Lee, Raphael C., Florin Despa, and Kimm J. Hamann. "Cell Injury: Mechanisms, Responses, and Repair" Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences 1066 (March 2006).


Merchant, FA, Holmes, WH, Capelli-Schellpfeffer, M., Lee, RC, Toner M. "Poloxamer 188 Enhances Functional Recovery of Lethally Heat–Shocked Fibroblasts ." Journal of Surgical Research 74 (1998):131-140.

Padanilam, JT, Bischof, JC, Lee, RC, Cravalho, EG, Tompkins RG, Yarmush ML, Toner M. "Effectiveness of Poloxamer 188 in Arresting Calcein Leakage from Thermally Damaged Isolated Skeletal Muscle Cells." Ann. N.Y. Acad. Sci. 720 (1994):111-123.

Lee, Raphael C., River, L. River, Pan, Fu-shih, Ji Li, Wollmann, Robert L. "Surfactant-induced Sealing of Electropermeabilized Skeletal Muscle Membranes in vivo" Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 89 (1992): 4524-4528.

Spinal Cord Injury
Laverty, Peter H., Alenka Leskovar, Gert J. Breur, Joan R. Coates, Robert L. Bergman, William R. Widmer, James P. Toombs, Scott Shapiro and Richard B. Borgens. "A Preliminary Study of Intravenous Surfactants in Paraplegic Dogs: Polymer Therapy in Canine Clinical SCI." Journal of Neurotrauma 21, no. 12 (2004): 1767-1777.

Borgens, Richard B., Riyi Shi, and Debra Bohner. "Behavioral recovery from spinal cord injury following delayed application of polyethylene glycol." The Journal of Experimental Biology 205 (2002): 1-12.


Borgens, Richard B., Debbi Bohnert, Brad Duerstock, Daniel Spomar, and Raphael C. Lee. "Subcutaneous Tri-Block Copolymer Produces Recovery From Spinal Cord Injury." Journal of Neuroscience Research 76 (2004): 141-154.

Traumatic Brain Injury
Frim, David M., Daniel J. Curry, William Cromie, Un Jung Kang, Raphael Lee and David A. Wright. "The surfactant poloxamer-188 protects against glutamate toxicity in the rat brain." NeuroReport 15, no. 1 (19 January 2004): 171-174.

Marks, Jeremy D., Chien-yuan Pan, Trevor Bushell, William J. Cromie, and Raphael C. Lee. "Ampiphilic tri-block copolymers provide potent, membrane-targeted neuroprotections." The FASEB Journal (2001): 1107-1109.

Electrocution and Burn Injury
Baskaran, Harihara, Mehmet Toner, Martin L. Yarmush, François Berthiaume. "Poloxamer-188 improves capillary blood flow and tissue viability in a cutaneous burn wound." Journal of Surgical Research 101 (2001): 56-61.

Lee, Raphael C., Philip River, Fu-shih Pan, Li Ji and Robert L. Wollmann. "Surfactant-induced sealing of electropermeabilized skeletal muscle membranes in vivo." Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 89 (May 1992): 4524-4528.

Myocardial Infarction and Reperfusion Injury
Watanabe, Makino, Takao Okada. "Lysophosphatidylcholine-induced myocardial damage is inhibited by pretreatment with poloxamer 188 in isolated rat heart." I 248 (2003): 209-215.
Radiation Injury
Greenebaum, B, Blossfield K, Hannig, J, Carillo, CS, Beckett, MA, Weichselbaum, RR, Lee, RC. "Poloxamer 188 Prevents Acute Necrosis of Adult Skeletal Muscle Cells Following High-Dose Irradiation." Burns 30 (2004): 539-47.

Hannig, Jürgen, D. Zhang, D.J. Canaday, M.A. Beckett, R.D. Astumian, R.R. Weichselbaum, and Raphael C. Lee. "Surfactant sealing of membranes permeabilized by ionizing radiation." Radiation Research 154 (2000): 171-177.
Mechanical Trauma
Philips, D.M. and R.C. Haut. "The use of a non-ionic surfactant (P-188) to save chondrocytes from necrosis following impact loading of chondral explants." Journal of Orthopaedic Research 22 (2004): 1135-1142.

Serbest, Gulyeter, Joel Horwitz, and Kenneth Barbee. "The Effect of Poloxamer-188 on Neuronal Cell Recovery from Mechanical Injury." Journal of Neurotrauma 22, no. 1 (2005): 119-132.


Maskarinec, Stacey A. and Ka Yee C. Lee. "Comparative Study of Poloxamer Insertion into Lipid Monolayers." Langmuir 19 (2003): 1809-1815.


Rundell, S.A., D.C. Baars, D.M. Phillips, and R.C. Haut. "The limitation of acute necrosis in retro-patellar cartilage after a severe blunt impact to the in vivo rabbit patello-femoral joint." Journal of Orthopaedic Research 23 (2005): 1363-1369.

Gene Therapy
Shi, X., T. Karkut, M. Alting-Mees, M. Chamankhah, S.M. Hemmingsen, and D.D. Hegedus. (2003). "Enhancing Eschrichia coli electrotransformation competency by invoking physiological adaptations to stress and modifying membrane integrity." Analytical Biochemistry 320 (2003): 152-155.

Hartikka, Jukka, Loretta Sukhu, Carol Buchner, Diane Hazard, Vesselina Bozoukova, Michal Margalith, Walter K. Nishioka, Carl J. Wheeler, Marston Manthorpe, and Michael Sawdey. "Electroporation-Facilitated Delivery of Plasmid DNA in Skeletal Muscle: Plasmid Dependence of Muscle Damage and Effect of Poloxamer 188." Molecular Therapy 4, no. 5 (November 2001): 407-415.


Krylova, Oxana O., Nikolay S. Melik-Nubarov, Gennadii A. Badun, Alexander L. Ksenofontov, Fred M. Menger, and Alexander A. Yaroslavov. "Pluronic L61 Accelerates Flip-Flop and Transbilayer Doxorubicin Permeation." Chemistry – A European Journal 9 (2003): 3930-3936.


Kabanov, Alexander V., Pierre Lemieux, Sergey Vinogradov, and Valery Alakhov. "Pluronic® block copolymers: novel functional molecules for gene therapy." Advanced Drug Delivery Reviews 54 (2002): 223-233.

Protein Refolding
Lee, Raphael C., Florin Despa, L. Guo, Pravin Betala, Anne Kuo, and P. Thiyagarajan. "Surfactant Copolymers Prevent Aggregation of Heat Denatured Lysozyme." Annals of Biomedical Engineering (June 2006).

Walsh, Alexandra M., Devkumar Mustafi, Marvin W. Makinen, and Raphael C. Lee. "A Surfactant Copolymer Facilitates Functional Recovery of Heat-Denatured Lysozyme." Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences 1066 (2005): 321-327.

Despa, Florin, Dennis P. Orgill, and Raphael C. Lee. "Molecular Crowding Effects on Protein Stability." Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences 1066 (2005): 54-66.

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Singh-Joy, Subhashni D. and McLain, Valerie C. "Safety assessment of poloxamers 101, 105, 108, 122, 123, 124, 181, 182, 183, 184, 185, 188, 212, 215, 217, 231, 234, 235, 237, 238, 282, 284, 288, 331, 333, 334, 335, 338, 401, 402, 403, and 407, poloxamer 105 benzoate, and poloxamer 182 dibenzoate as used in cosmetics." International Journal of Toxicology (2008)27 Suppl 2:93-128.

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